I'm also thinking that Aragon might move on Aquitaine during the Albigensian Crusade . [6], A few weeks later, on 8 September, Frederick and Welf VI were among the few German crusaders spared when flash flooding destroyed the main camp. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia by a court of bishops and princes in 1180, declared that imperial law overruled traditional German law, and had Henry stripped of his lands and declared an outlaw. Because of poor relations with the Italian states in the Holy Roman Empire. ETA: the more I read the more I think Frederick might have actually attacked the ERE on the way to Jerusalem... this possibly being the POD (I'm assuming he either backs an usurper, Some of the add-ons on this site are powered by, Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900. [7] Frederick energetically pursued the crown and at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 the kingdom's princely electors designated him as the next German king. [18] He moved on to Pavia, where he received the Iron Crown and the title of King of Italy. Both Henry and Frederick were viewed to be sufficiently and formally devout to the teachings of the Church, without being moved to the extremes of spirituality seen in the great saints of the 12th century. Henry spent three years in exile at the court of his father-in-law Henry II of England in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany. Consequently, his younger son Frederick V became the new Duke of Swabia in 1167,[56] while his eldest son Henry was crowned King of the Romans in 1169, alongside his father who also retained the title. [1] He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. Finding this too difficult in the face of constant Turkish attacks near Dorylaeum, he turned back. There was no divine right for the German king to also control the church by naming both bishops and popes. [78], Pope Urban III died shortly after, and was succeeded by Gregory VIII, who was more concerned with troubling reports from the Holy Land than with a power struggle with Barbarossa. [60][61] With the refusal of Henry the Lion to bring help to Italy, the campaign was a complete failure. [79], On 27 March 1188, at the Diet of Mainz, the archbishop of Cologne submitted to Frederick. At the royal tent the king received him, and after kissing the pope's feet, Frederick expected to receive the traditional kiss of peace. Frederick sent a large embassy ahead to make preparations in Byzantium. [39][40], The death of Pope Adrian IV in 1159 led to the election of two rival popes, Alexander III and the antipope Victor IV, and both sought Frederick's support. The king agreed, and a Hungarian army of 2,000 men led by Géza escorted the German emperor's forces. [22] On their way northwards, they attacked Spoleto and encountered the ambassadors of Manuel I Comnenus, who showered Frederick with costly gifts. Frederick had to humble himself before Alexander III at Venice. In the old days of Henry V and Henry VI, the claim of divine right of kings had been severely undermined by the Investiture controversy. Frederick Barbarossa (German: Friedrich I., Italian: Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He became King of Italy in 1155 and was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. It also provided a framework to legitimize his claim to the right to rule both Germany and northern Italy. Frederick could not afford to make an outright enemy of Henry. Frederick's father strongly objected to his son's crusade. [116] For example, Rahewin's physical description of Frederick reproduces word-for-word (except for details of hair and beard) a description of another monarch, Theodoric II written nearly eight hundred years earlier by Sidonius Apollinaris:[117]. Frederick's victory over Henry did not gain him as much in the German feudalistic system as it would have in the English feudalistic system. We all know that Frederick Barbarossa was the Holy Roman Emperor who lived from 1122–1190 A.D. [63] When Frederick returned to Germany after his defeat in northern Italy, he was a bitter and exhausted man. [35] In response, Alexander III excommunicated both Frederick I and Victor IV. The great players in the German civil war had been the Pope, Emperor, Ghibellines, and the Guelfs, but none of these had emerged as the winner. Among his contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilis, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy. It is speculated that Pope Gregory VII personally encouraged the Justinian rule of law and had a copy of it. [4] He was crowned King of the Romans at Aachen several days later, on 9 March 1152. [22] The Romans began to riot, and Frederick spent his coronation day putting down the revolt, resulting in the deaths of over 1,000 Romans and many more thousands injured. The elder Frederick, who was dying, expected his son to look after his widow and young half-brother. The armies coming from western Europe pushed on through Anatolia, where they were victorious in taking Aksehir and defeating the Turks in the Battle of Iconium, and entered Cilician Armenia. He also severely punished the citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. The German crusader army departed from Regensburg seven weeks later. [62], Frederick was faced with the reality of disorder among the German states, where continuous civil wars were waged between pretenders and the ambitious who wanted the crown for themselves. Now it had recurred, in a slightly different form. There have been several TLs on the subject. [74], Although the Italian city states had achieved a measure of independence from Frederick as a result of his failed fifth expedition into Italy,[75] the emperor had not given up on his Italian dominions. His contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilis, or the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy. [44] Heartened by this victory, Frederick lifted the siege of Ancona and hurried to Rome, where he had his wife crowned empress and also received a second coronation from Paschal III. His father died on 4 or 6 April and Frederick succeeded to the Duchy of Swabia. Arnold was captured and hanged for treason and rebellion. Sources: Frederick Barbarossa by Marcel Pacaut. [8] Frederick's father was from the Hohenstaufen family, and his mother was from the Welf family, the two most powerful families in Germany. [73] When Frederick returned to Germany after his defeat in northern Italy, he was a bitter and exhausted man. [121], Another legend states that when Barbarossa was in the process of seizing Milan in 1158, his wife, the Empress Beatrice, was taken captive by the enraged Milanese and forced to ride through the city on a donkey in a humiliating manner. Consequently, his younger son Frederick V became the new Duke of Swabia in 1167,[47] while his eldest son Henry was crowned King of the Romans in 1169, alongside his father who also retained the title. [35] Louis neared the meeting site, but when he became aware that Frederick had stacked the votes for Alexander, Louis decided not to attend the council. From there, a combination of the unhealthy Italian summer and the effects of his year-long absence from Germany meant he was forced to put off his planned campaign against the Normans of Sicily. Otto died after finishing the first two books, leaving the last two to Rahewin, his provost. The unexpected demise of Frederick left the Crusader army under the command of the rivals Philip II and Richard, who had traveled to Palestine separately by sea, and ultimately led to its dissolution. Frederick I Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190) was a German Holy Roman Emperor. There began to be a generalized social desire to "create greater Germany" by conquering the Slavs to the east. From his second marriage, to Beatrice of Burgundy,[124] he had the following children: 12th century, Hohenstaufen Holy Roman Emperor, A golden bust of Frederick I, given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171. [34] Alexander refused, and Frederick recognised Victor IV as the legitimate pope in 1160. In the first, beginning in October 1154,[17] his plan was to launch a campaign against the Normans under King William I of Sicily. Around 1 December, Cardinal Henry of Marcy preached a crusade sermon before Frederick and a public assembly in Strasbourg. Awesome. This treaty obligated the Germans to attack King Roger II of Sicily in cooperation with the Byzantines. 18. Because of this, he had to walk to the Crusade, and he drowned in Armenia. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. [120], In medieval Europe, the Golden Legend became refined by Jacopo da Voragine. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that Frederick, rather than Conrad's own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia, succeed him as king. The Investiture controversy from previous centuries had been brought to a tendentious peace with the Concordat of Worms and affirmed in the First Council of the Lateran.

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